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Vata, Pitta, and Kapha • Yoga Basics

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Ayurveda – the ancient Indian healing science – says that our mental, physical and emotional well-being are determined by a dance of magical energies, known as doshas. These doshas (Vata, Pitta, Kapha) govern our unique constitution, and play a crucial role in maintaining harmony and balance within our bodies. Understanding these energy patterns will help us live in harmony with our true nature, unlocking the secrets to optimal health.

What is a Dosha?

A dosha, or central concept, is at the heart of Ayurveda, the ancient Indian system of medicine, known as the “science of life”. The Sanskrit word dosha translates to “fault” or “defect,” referring to the imbalances that can occur within the human body. In Ayurveda however, the concept is not seen as a negative but as a way of understanding our unique constitution and maintaining optimal health.

A dosha is an energy or bio-elemental principal that exists in our bodies and governs the physical and mental wellbeing. Vata is the primary dosha. Pitta and Kapha are secondary. Each has its own unique characteristics, functions, and energetic principles. The five elements of nature—air, space, fire, water, and earth—are the main energetic components that are combined in specific ways to form each dosha. These fluctuations in quantities and qualities are believed to be responsible for determining various conditions such as growth, aging and health. According to Ayurvedic teachings, maintaining a balanced between these three doshas leads to optimal health and wellbeing.

Role in Ayurvedic Disease

Ayurveda considers the doshas’ balance to be the root of disease or our health problems. It teaches us that good health and vitality are experienced when the three doshas have a balance. On the other hand, any disruption in the delicate balance of the three doshas can lead to various health issues—affecting not just the physical body, but also mental and emotional wellness.

An imbalance of Vata dosha may cause anxiety, dryness and constipation. Pitta, on the other hand, can cause inflammation and digestive disorders. Kapha dosha imbalances can lead to weight gain, depression, and lethargy.

Principles of Balance

The principle of balance in Ayurvedic medicine is built on the concept that opposites counteract as well as the concept of ‘like increases like.’ This means that when one dosha is in excess, it can be balanced out by increasing opposite doshas. If someone has an imbalance of Pitta dosha, which is characterized by excessive inflammation and heat, they might benefit from eating cooling or cold food and avoiding spicy or astringent foods.

Prana, Tejas and Ojas

The following are some of the ways to get in touch with each other: Prana has subtle energiesAyurveda has three key concepts: tejas (energy), ojas (well-being) and ojas (balance). These three essential essences help maintain the overall balance and wellbeing of an individual. Understanding these energies helps us to gain a deeper insight into the Ayurvedic doeshas and how they manifest themselves in our body to promote health and wellbeing.

Prana governs Vata dosha

Prana, or vital energy, is often referred as the life force that sustains all living things. It is a subtle energy that flows through our body and governs different physiological functions. Prana controls the nervous system, respiration and circulation. It also nourishes the mind and consciousness. When prana is flowing harmoniously, it gives us vitality, clarity, a sense of well-being, and a feeling of overall wellbeing. When it becomes unbalanced, we can feel fatigued, lethargic and experience various health issues.

Prana is a complementary element to Vata dosha, which is composed of elements such as air and ether that represent change and movement. It also supports cognitive functions including creativity and imagination.

Tejas influences Pitta dosha

Tejas represents our transformative power. It can be translated as “inner radiance” or “brightness.” This concept refers to our digestive fire and metabolic processes at both physical and mental levels. Tejas is related to digestion, absorption and assimilation of foods, along with mental processes such as perception and cognition. The balanced functioning of Tejas leads a robust metabolism, a strong immunity, mental sharpness, as well as enthusiasm for life. Tejas imbalances can cause digestive problems, sluggish digestion, and mental fog.

Pitta, which is driven by the fire element, embodies digestion. Tejas promotes a good metabolism that facilitates nutrient absorption and allows for clarity of mind aligning with Pitta trait.

Ojas stabilizes Kapha dosha

Ayurveda considers Ojas to be the essence of vitality, immunity and health. It is the purest source of energy in the body, derived from the proper digestion and transformation of nutrients. Ojas gives strength to the organs, tissue, mind, and immune systems as a group. This vital substance promotes psychological well-being, longevity, and stability in emotions. When it is out of balance, we can experience fatigue, frequent illness, and a general feeling of weakness.

Kapha represents earth-water elements characterizing stability; ojas contributes grounding energy by providing strength- physically & mentally aiding in maintaining emotional equilibrium characteristics shared by Kapha.

The Three Doshas

The natural constitution of each individual is determined at birth, based on their parents’ constitutions and other factors like the time of conception. This natural composition determines their mind/body type. It includes various physiological and psycho-social characteristics such as physical appearance, physique and personality traits.

Understanding the characteristics and qualities that make up the three doshas helps us understand ourselves and how to maintain a healthy and balanced life.

Vata Dosha

Vata dosha governs all movement, communication, and breathing in the body. It is primarily comprised of akasa & vayu mahabhutas – the space & air elements.

  • Characteristics: People with a dominant Vata dosha tend to be thin or lean, have dry skin and cold hands and/or feet. They are creative, energetic and quick-thinking, but they can also be prone anxiety and fear.
  • When Balanced You will be able to think clearly, have a good level of energy and have a healthy digestion.
  • When Balance is Out of Balance Imbalanced Vata Dosha can lead issues such as dry, flaky skin, insomnia, restlessness, and digestive issues, like gas and constipation.

Kapha Dosha

The Kapha dosha, pronounced “kuffa,” is responsible for the structure and lubrication of the body. It’s also associated with our immune system. Kapha dosha consists of the earth and water element prithvi.

  • Characteristics:People with this dominant dosha tend to be more solidly built, have smooth or oily hair, and a smoother, more supple skin. They are typically calm, loving, nurturing, have a good memory, and forgiving — but only when balanced.
  • When Balanced It boosts immunity and helps maintain body temperature.
  • When Balance is Out of Balance Weight gain, congestion and feelings of lethargy, heaviness or fatigue are all possible.

Pitta Dosha

The Pitta dosha regulates the body’s heat and metabolism. This dosha, it is said, governs digestion not only of foods but also of experiences in life. It is primarily made up of agni, or tejas, and ap mahabhutas (fire and water elements).

  • Characteristics: Those with this dominant Dosha have a medium body build, a warm body temperature and fair skin. They are usually ambitious, competitive and have a strong digestion.
  • When BalancedIt encourages a healthy digestion and appetite. The person becomes focused and good at making decisions.
  • When Balance is Out of Balance This can lead to heartburn, skin rashes, and feelings of aggression, impatience or irritability.

Doshas of Ayurveda Chart

Below is a list of the main Ayurvedic Doshas, along with their characteristics.

Dosha Elements Physical Attributes Psychological Attributes When Balanced Imbalanced
Vata Air and Space Lean or thin skin, dry hands and cold feet Creative, energetic and quick-thinking. Prone to anxiety and fears Healthy digestion, good energy levels and clear thinking Dry skin, restlessness, insomnia, digestive issues (gas, constipation)
Pitta Fire and Water Medium build, warm body temperature, fair skin Ambitious, competitive, strong digestion Healthy appetite, efficient digestion, focused, good decision-making Heartburn, skin rashes and aggressiveness, impatience and irritability
Kapha Earth and Water Solid build, oily/smooth skin, thick hair Calmness, love, nurturing, good memories, forgiveness Strong immunity and stable body temperatures Weight gain, congestion or lethargy

Ayurvedic practices to balance the Doshas

Ayurveda is a holistic way to achieve balance in mind, body and spirit. Maintaining the balance between the three doshas can be done through modifying one’s diet, routine, or environment.


  • Vata: It’s best to consume cooked, warm foods that are grounding and nourishing. Included in this are root vegetables, grains and healthy fats.
  • Kapha: A diet that is easy to digest, light and fresh is recommended. Raw fruits and vegetables, lean protein, and spices are all good options.
  • Pitta:It is best to eat a diet that is cooling and soothing. This can include fruits, vegetables, herbal teas, and fresh fruit. Avoid fried foods and heavy food, such as oily or fatty foods.


  • Vata: Gentle physical exercise such as You can find out more by clicking here.Tai chi helps calm the mind, and can also help ground the body.
  • Kapha: To stimulate metabolism and promote weight reduction, intense exercise is recommended. This can include running, cycling, or dancing.
  • Pitta:Exercise that is moderate and not too intense will be most beneficial. Swimming, biking, and walking are all good options.

Lifestyle Practices

  • Vata: A daily routine that involves waking up at the same time and going to sleep at the same, Regular mealsVata dosha is balanced by relaxing and taking time to relax.
  • Kapha: Avoiding sedentary lifestyles and staying active is important. Aromatherapy is a great way to incorporate into your daily lifeHot baths also help balance excess Kapha energie.
  • Pitta:Stress can be controlled by taking regular breaks and practicing relaxing activities like deep breathing or meditation. Avoiding excessive exposure to the sun can also be beneficial.

Discovering your Dosha

Your Ayurvedic Constitution will help you make the best lifestyle and dietary choices for your current state of balance and dosha type. It is important to consider your inherent nature (Prakriti) and your current state or balance (Vikriti) in order to determine which dosha dominates your constitution. Your Prakriti, which is determined at birth, remains relatively constant throughout your life. However, your Vikriti may change depending on factors such as your diet, lifestyle and environmental influences. You can determine your dosha in two ways: by self-assessment or by consulting an Ayurvedic specialist.

Self-assessment includes observing and reflecting your physical, emotional, and mental characteristics. You can begin with a series questions that assesses your body type, energy level, sleep patterns and digestion. These questions are meant to help you identify your dominant dosha. The easiest way to do this is to complete an online questionnaire—essentially a dosha quiz. It may not be as accurate as a consultation in person. It is important to answer all questions honestly and thoughtfully when taking an online dosha test to ensure accurate results.

Consulting an Ayurvedic healthcare practitioner will be the most effective way to determine your Dosha. These practitioners are trained in assessing your physical and mental condition through various techniques such as tongue examinations, pulse diagnosis and detailed questions. They will analyze Prakriti and Vikriti in order to determine your dosha and then offer personalized Ayurvedic treatments and recommendations for balancing the mind and body. This usually involves checking your skin, hair and nails, as well as your pulse, skin tone, or body type. They may also watch your behavior and sleep patterns. Eat well, and much more.

Final thoughts

Ayurveda shows us that we can be active participants in our health journey, not just passive observers. The three Ayurvedic doshas – Vata, Pitta, and Kapha – offer us a profound understanding of our individuality and the interconnectedness of all things. Ayurveda emphasizes the importance of understanding our unique constitution, which guides us in making appropriate lifestyle and dietary choices. By identifying and understanding our primary dosha we gain valuable insights into our physical, emotional, and mental well-being.


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